What is Computer Motherboard |What Are The Main Functions Of A Motherboard –Best Information
Recent technical tips have described the basics of choosing a computer case and mentioned different sizes that fit motherboards in different form factors. Some people were interested in understanding more about the basics of motherboards, and this is what this take chip is intended to work on.
The motherboard, also known as the main board, is the main circuit board inside the computer to which the central processing unit (CPU), memory, expansion slots, drives, and other peripherals are connected. The circuits on the motherboard facilitate communication between all the devices in the computer and are important for system performance such as items such as CPU and memory.
The core circuit of the mother circuit is called a chipset, and the manufacturer of the motherboard is usually not the manufacturer of the chipset. Intel manufactures motherboards with their own chipsets, but buying a motherboard brand such as Gigabyte, BioStar, ASUS means a board with a VIA, Nvidia, SIS, or Intel brand chipset. Means to get.
Motherboards Components And Their Functions
1. Form factor of Motherboard
Some standard form factors are available, but some are similar to those found on desktop computers.
The basic sizes of each are as follows:
- ATX: 12 “x 9.6” (305 mm x 244 mm)
- Micro ATX: 9.6 “x 9.6” (244 mm x 244 mm)
- FlexatX: 9.0 “x 7.5” (229 mm x 191 mm)
- Mini ITX: 6.7 “x 6.7” (170mm x 170mm)
ATX and mATX are the most popular motherboard sizes for desktop computers, and some are also the largest, as shown in the list above. The more space you have on the motherboard, the more expandability and additional features you have, and the more flexible you are in using these boards. While the mini-ITX board has only one slot for memory and one slot for expansion cards, a typical ATX board has four memory slots and six slots for expansion cards.
Each form factor has its own niche, suitable for workstations and gaming systems for large boards to media centers and small boards to in-vehicle computers. There is certainly overlap between potential applications in each form factor, and other features and features also affect their intended use.
2. CPU socket of Motherboard
Leading processor makers AMD and Intel are constantly fighting to provide the fastest and most powerful processor available. To achieve higher speeds and performance from smaller chips, it is usually necessary to change the physical dimensions with each new generation of processor release. Therefore, to accept a new CPU, the motherboard must be developed at the same speed.
At that time, AMD and Intel processors shared a common CPU socket, but at that time it was short-lived. Since then, AMD and Intel have been on their own journey, using different designs, relatively in parallel, on the path of performance and speed. Choosing a motherboard for the latest AMD processors eliminates the need to use Intel processors and vice versa.
Current products for AMD desktop processors include the Athlon 64, available in Socket 939 and Socket 754 formats. The number in the name indicates the number of pins on the back of the CPU that connect to the socket on the motherboard. Socket 939 Athlon 64 has a staggered array of 937 small pins that match the socket on the motherboard. The Chantec VNF4 Ultra is an example of a Socket 939 motherboard based on Nvidia’s NForce4 Ultra chipset technology. In addition to these two sockets, many AML processors, including Athlone XP, Sempron, and Durons, share the Socket A format, also known as Socket 462. This is because pin 462 is connected to the motherboard.
The latest product for Intel’s proprietary Pentium 4 and Celeron processors, LGA775 has no pins at all and basically replaces the socket pins with a motherboard. Perhaps this design step puts the burden of claiming a bent pin warranty on someone else, but it’s very unique. The Biostar P4M80-M7 is an example of an LGA775 motherboard based on the VIAP4M80 chipset. Other Intel processors use Socket478 format for Pentium 4 and Celeron processors on the market.
Most motherboards only support one CPU socket, but for some applications you can benefit from using multiple processors to handle your task. Servers and high-end workspaces are two examples of how dual processor systems such as the Tian Thunder i7500 can run on the motherboard, making the work of more advanced applications lighter.
3. Components of Motherboard
Component is a fairly vague term used to describe this section, but it covers a wide variety of items. All computer systems use memory, storage devices, and power supplies, but among the many differences are the types and amounts of connections of these components to the motherboard.
Most modern systems use DDR memory, but DDR-2 memory will become more common and eventually standard. Some boards provide slots for both types of memory, but usually one or the other technology is supported. In addition to individual operations, DDR184 pins and DDR-2 240 pins prevent physical differences from becoming interchangeable. In the future, users will have to decide whether to keep up with new technology trends when choosing a motherboard or to continue using existing DDR for as long as possible. Despite the technology, most motherboards come with 2-4 slots for memory, but as mentioned earlier, mini-ITX boards may only offer 1 slot.
Hard drive technology is also changing, as described in the technical tip that SATA is compared to ATA hard drives. Over the years, most motherboards have introduced two ATA connections that can support up to four drives. As SATA became more popular, some boards offered a combination of ATA and SATA connections, while others removed ATA together and instead supported multiple drives with only one drive. Provides a SATA connection. In addition to type and volume, the motherboard can also offer options for hard drive functionality by integrating an onboard RAID controller, as in ASUS 8VS Deluxe.
As the system becomes more sophisticated, special power requirements are often applied to keep the system running smoothly. Most motherboards have a common 20-pin ATX power connector, but some server boards may have a 24-pin connection instead. AMD Athlon 64 and Pentium 4 processor motherboards have a second power connection in the immediate vicinity of the CPU sockets required by today’s high-end processors. This particular 4-pin connection is not found on all AMD Socket A motherboards, but it is certainly found on AMD Socket 939 motherboards. The power supply has been involved in this particular connection for years, but to upgrade an old system to a new motherboard, the power supply may also be another item that needs to be upgraded.
4. Additional features of Motherboard
Many motherboards include onboard functionality that was previously only available as a separately purchased expansion card. A typical motherboard will now include several USB 2.0 ports for stereo sound capability, 10/100 LAN connectivity, and rear panel connectivity. Depending on the end user’s budget and needs, many motherboards may include other useful features such as an integrated Firewire port, VGA connectivity, and an onboard RAID controller.
Additional features of the motherboard
Many of these items can be combined with expansion cards later, but if you know in advance that you need them, you’ll find a board about what you need with little effort and expense of installation. can do. That said, onboard components don’t have many options, so the question is whether to use them or leave them alone. For example, you can include stereo sound, but most motherboards offer 5 channels, but prefer 8 channels. In that case, it’s good to have an expansion slot on the motherboard to connect the selected sound card.
5. Expansion slot of Motherboard
Motherboards typically have at least one slot for a graphics card and several slots for expanding the functionality of the system in other areas. Graphics cards are available in PCI, AGP, and now PCI Express formats, and adapting the motherboard to the correct card is an important step. Most motherboards released over the years include an AGP slot. And the new wave of motherboards is introducing PCI Express slots for graphics card installation.
PCI slots are found on most motherboards,
AGP and PCI Express are much slower than slots and are not the best choice for graphics. ATX motherboards usually have 4-5 PCI slots and can be used for secondary display graphics cards, but more common such as sound cards, network cards, RAID controllers, TV tuners, modems, USB / Firewire controllers, etc. Contains the application. Having multiple PCI slots is less important than it used to be, given that many of these items are now included on the ship.
6. Style of Motherboard
Why do we need to keep the motherboard out of order in order to connect Windows and special lighting effects with the full-featured enthusiasts of the computer? The days of stereotypical green PCBs with white connectors are gone, and most boards now include brightly colored PCBs, expansion slots, memory slots, drive connectors, and similar colored rainbows.
For example, style can be a deciding factor if it is not specified on the mATX board for Socket 754 AMD Athlon 64. The Chaintech MK8M800 and Biostar K8 VGA-M-N are VIAK8 M800 chipsets and similar boards for less than $ 70. The golden PCB with the black and white features of the Chantec board may appeal to some people, but Biostar’s red, white, blue and yellow colors can affect others. There is.
In general, certain models are only available in one color scheme, and many manufacturers use the same theme throughout their current line. As an example, the BioStar board for the AMD Athlon 64 processor above has the same basic style as this Biostar board for the new Pentium LGA775 processor. In addition to coloring, some manufacturers incorporate LED lighting into the chipset cooling fan or access the motherboard with a corresponding cable to complete the unique look of the board.
Some people ridicule the colors that are on the list of key features on the motherboard, while others buy the style first and then run it. There are many factors to choose a motherboard, and this take tip just grabbed the surface of the basic options that may really need to be considered. Although advanced users may need to make a lot of technical decisions, covering the above six basic areas is a good start for users of all levels.