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What Is Operating System In Computer | What Is An Operating System Easy Definition? | Operating System With Example
What Is An Operating System – An operating system (O.S.) is the main control program of a computer that manages all other programs such as application programs (MS Word, Games, Tally., etc.) which requires some type of O.S. that tells the computer how to operates and utilize other programs installed on the computer.
Examples of some of the well known O.S. are DOS is well defines as Application Program Interface (API). Every computer necessarily Ms. DOS, PC DOS), Windows, UNIX, LINUX, etc.
Any computer can be broadly classified in terms of four component dimensioned:
(i) Hardware, (ii) Operating System, (iii) Application Programs, (iv) User
What Is An Operating System Easy Definition? | Functions Of Operating System
Functions & Features Of Operating System
Any O.S. manages the following task:
1. Resource Management: It manages the all memories like main memory(RAM). all storage devices like floppy, hard disk drives, all input and output devices like mouse, keyboard, printer, VDU etc. The OS is responsible for the following tasks:
(a) Allocating and deallocating memory space for various application programs
(b) Managing of secondary storage. All programs, compilers, are stored on hard disk.
(c) Handling all input output devices attached to the computer such as modem, printer, mouse, scanner, Web Camera etc.
2. File Management: It manages all files such as creation deletion, copying renaming of files; creating, renaming, copying and removing directories as well as mapping between directories on to secondary memory.
3. Security Management: It helps to protect the files and directories from mishandling, hacking, illegal use, etc.
4. Managing System Services: It manages all those application programs which are needed in the system. It loads the programs requested by the user into the memory.
5. Error Detection: |It manages all those errors occurs at the time of execution of programs.
6. Utlization: It utilizes efficiently all the resources of the computer.
7. Interaction: It interacts between user and computer. It means that user can start work on the computer after booting the system. From the above points, we can conclude that without O.S. computer system is totally handicapped.
Features Of O.S.
An operating system may be viewed as an organized collection of software extensions of hardware, consisting of control routines for operating a computer and for providing an environment for execution of programs. Other programs rely on facilities provided by the operating system.
Some of the O.S. provides the facilities of single user and single tasking and some of them are multi-user and multi-tasking (mainly networking) environment.
1- Single User O.S: It is an O.S which does not provide the facilities of networking. This assumes that at any given time only one user uses the system and runs only one program (called single tasking) i.e. it does not allow two users to concurrently work on the same system. This type of O.S. is MS-DOS provided by Microsoft, PC-DOS provided by IBM (International Business Machine).
Limitations Of Single User O.S:
(i) It is CUI (Command User Interface):
(ii) It is text-based user interface.
(iii) It is a single user and can perform single tasking.
(iv) It is limited to working with one mega byte (MB) or 64O kilo byte (KB).
(v) It does not allow the long file names. The user is bound to give eight characters file names with three character extension.
(vi) It is not secure.
2- Multi-User O.S.: This type of O.S provide facilities for maintenance of individual user
environments, require user authentication for security and protection, and provide per- user resource usage accounting. This assumes that many users can connect with each other through computers. This type of O.S. is provided by Multiprogramming O.S. such as UNIX, LINUX, WINDOWS, WINDOWS NT etc.
Advantage Of Multi User O.S:
(i) User can share other resources such as printer, fîle, data, etc., with other computers.
(ii) Many computers can be connected with one to another.
(iii) It is Graphical User Interface (mainly Windows and Linux but not Unix) i.e., GUI based. GUI means user can interact with the commands and options just by clicking the related small picture called as ICON (Image On Console).
(iv) User is not expected to remember or. type any command, all he is required to do is to click on the appropriate ICON with help of small input device mouse.
(v) File Names can be 256 characters with extension 256 characters.
(vi) It requires high configuration systems.
(vii) It is secured.
Installing And Uninstalling Software
Installing New Software: It means that, if a software is required by the system to do a specific task then it has to be installed in the system. There are many ways to install software. Some software starts automatically because it has an ‘autorun’. For Softwares without ‘autorun’ there are two procedures to install them.
(i) Start the system
(ii) After getting the desktop, insert to that CD /DVD (in CD ROM or DVD Combo drive) in which the source software is stored.
(iii) click on START then select RUN BROWSE
(iv) click on LOOK IN, then select the directory/folder of CD/DVD
(v) click on SETUP After doing
(v) step, software installation will be started automatically. Installation related messages appear from time to time.(e.g Next, Back, etc) just keep reading the message and click on ‘next’ or run’ or finish.
By using Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel, you can perform a number of tasks-primarily, the task of installing an application from local media, such as a CD-ROM or floppy disk; a defined Active Directory location, for an assigned and published application on a corporate network; or the Internet.
You can also use Add or Remove Programs to remove or modify an existing application or to repair a damaged application.
Add or Remove Programs also offers the following features:
- Provides users with a single user interface for managing and maintaining their programs.
- Provides an interface that is useful for users with both advanced and novice knowledge about Microsoft Windows.
- Supports the installation of programs when a user has the program package (on local media), as well as installation from either a corporate or an Internet
- Exposes the Windows Installer component while maintaining support for other installation technologies.
To add a program from a CD or floppy disk or any other Storage Device
1. Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click Add or Remove Programs
2. When using Add or Remove programs, we can only install programs that are
written for Windows Operating System.
3. Open Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel.
4. Click Add New Program and then click CD or Floppy button.
5. Follow the instructions of Install Program from Floppy Disk or CD-ROM dialog box. Insert the Floppy disk or CD of program in the drive. Click Next Button.
Computer will automatically search the program which can be installed on the computer through CD or other storage media. If you want to install program from any other storage device like external hard disk, flash drive etc. then you can click on Browse button in the Run Installation Program dialog box.
- The selected program will be installed in the computer.
- Encylopedias can be installed and uninstalled in the same way as softwares.
- To Remove(Uninstall) an Installed Program or Software
1. To uninstall a software, Click Start, click Control Panel,
2. Double-click Add or Remove Programs icon present in Control Panel.
3. Select the program you want to uninstall.
4. Click the Remove Button. On clicking the Remove Button a dialog box will appear for your confirmation for the removal of the program. On selecting Uninstall button, the program will start uninstalling and it will be removed from the System.
Installation of printers and other devices is very easy in Windows XP as it automatically
detects the attached devices. When you connect the new printer with computer, windows
flashes the message of new printer found. When you respond to the message, It automatically ask for the installation CD for the printer to install the drivers missing from the systems.
You can also install a new printer by the following steps.
1. Click Start – Control Panel. The control panel window opens on the screen
2. Double-click Printers and Faxes icon present in the Control Panel.
3. Click on Add a printer option present in the left vertical pane. Add Printer Wizard opens on the screen.
4. Click on Next Button in Add Printer Wizard.
5. Add Printer Wizard will allow two options – Local or Network Printer
(a) Local printer attached to this computer Back
(b) A network printer or a printer attached to another computer If you select Local printer and automatically detect and install plug and play printer then click on Next button.
6. Windows automatically searches and installs the printer.