Thursday, February 22, 2024

What Is an Analog or Digital Computer ? | Best History of the Computer – Analog Or Digital?

What Is an Analog or Digital Computer | What Is The Difference Between Digital And Analog? | History of the Computer – Analog Or Digital?

What Is an Analog or Digital Computer – The Emergence of Electronics, we look at how the development of radar during World War II led to our understanding of pulse technology. At the same time, the methods of calculation required for ballistic trajectories have been refined. From these beginnings, the digital computer was developed.

What do “analog” and “digital” mean? A few examples illustrate the difference. An analog is something that is clearly similar, but you may know that a similar process or function is equivalent or similar to another. Analogies are often used to describe or explain some new functionality in terms that should be understood.

For example, domestic electrical circuits for domestic wiring for operating lamps. Power is controlled by a circuit breaker if available at the outlet into which the lamp is plugged. This is compared to readily available plumbing where the water supply is controlled by a valve or faucet as you enter the house and pipes carry the water to the kitchen where the water supply can be turned on or off with a faucet or tap. . The water flow rate can be controlled similar to a dimmer on a lamp.

The analogy isn’t exactly the same, but it helps someone who knows plumbing systems understand the power supply.

Numerology, or numbers, refers to using numbers to represent all things. For example, digital clocks use numbers to tell time. The numbers on a traditional dial are arranged around the dial so that the hands pointing to them correspond to the passage of time. For example, a minute hand pointing straight down at the halfway point of a clock’s circle indicates the passage of 30 minutes.

When the hour hand points to the number 3, it indicates 12 3 hours of the complete circuit. When we started telling him the time, we came to know that it was now his 3:30. But the digital clock shows 3:30.

Approaching our topic, you can think about the development of gramophone records. Vinyl LP was the standard medium for music recording, and tape recording was developed in parallel for playback from the 1950s onwards. Both of these media use modulation systems in which the amplitude or intensity of the modulation is proportional to or equal to the loudness of the original raw vocal or instrument.

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This music was converted by a microphone into variable electrical signals corresponding to sounds.

With the invention of the compact disc in the 1980s, digital techniques were employed to monitor sound intensity using sample pulses to represent changes in sound level. This sampling pulse is used at an inaudible high frequency, allowing the sound progression to be detected. The principle is similar to that of a movie camera, where a series of still images are displayed at a rate of 32 frames per second, giving the appearance of moving images. Similarly, TVs use frame rates of 50 or 60 per second (strictly 25 0 or 30 interlaced).

A major advantage of digital recording and playback systems (amplifiers, etc. are also digital) is that the nature of the high frequency pulses allows them to be copied exactly when transferred from one medium to another. Copy CD tracks to compilation CDs. With analog systems, every transfer is lossy, so a recording copied from a vinyl LP through your home stereo to cassette tape will be significantly lower quality than the original.

Digital types have overtaken analog, but computers can also be analog or digital. I sometimes use analog computers for my research. For example, the temperature and humidity in a newly designed air-conditioned room may be recorded in a moving graph and displayed on the screen. Either way, the graph is an analogous representation of temperature and pressure.

Early electronic controls for aircraft operated in the form of analog computers, and the aileron movement time was proportional, but not directly proportional, to the joystick speed. Calculations were made that depended on the speed and altitude of the aircraft, as well as other factors. The electronic “box” consisted of linear amplifiers and variable response circuits, all fed from sensors such as flight controls.

What Is an Analog or Digital Computer | Which Is Best Analog Or Digital Computer?

What Is an Analog or Digital Computer | What Is The Difference Between Digital And Analog? | History of the Computer - Analog Or Digital?
What Is an Analog or Digital Computer | What Is The Difference Between Digital And Analog? | History of the Computer – Analog Or Digital?
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Classification Of Computers

I would like to focus on computer classification. It is very important to know about the taxonomy of a particular computer system. Because it helps to clearly distinguish between them when encountered. Computers are classified based on the type of data they process, their purpose, and their physical size.

Classification By Data Processing:

Digital Computer : A digital computer converts all input data into binary form. It processes data in binary format, but converts the processed information to decimal format. The output from a digital computer is usually discrete values. Digital computers are very accurate. Examples include desktop calculators, some personal computers, and editors. Most business applications use digital computers.

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Analog Computers : Analog computers use physical quantities to represent data in a continuous format. Their accuracy depends on the measurements made, so they are not as accurate as digital computers. This type of computer is used for scientific or engineering purposes. Examples include gas pumps, speedometers, voltmeters, and all such devices.

Hybrid Computers : Hybrid computers combine the best features of analog and digital computers. Using a digitizer, hybrid computers accept analog input and output digital values. They are used in highly scientific environments. Hybrids have the speed of analog and the precision of digital computers.

Classification By Purpose:

Using this premise, the two main classes are described below.

Special Purpose Computers: These are computers designed to perform specific tasks. They have embedded programs that are stored in a portion of main memory called read-only memory (ROM). The contents of this type of memory can be accessed and executed by the computer, but cannot be changed by the user. An example is a computer designed for use with a digital clock.

General Purpose Computers: These are computers that are not specifically designed or built for a specific task. They solve different problems depending on the program or the software loaded on them. Their main memory is usually random access memory (RAM). Examples of these types of computers can be found in business, business, and scientific environments.

Classification By Physical Size:

Microcomputers: Microcomputers are at the bottom of the range of computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. That CPU is a microprocessor. The first microprocessors consisted of 8-bit microprocessor chips. Personal Computers (PCs) are the most common application in this category. PCs support multiple input and output devices. Examples of microcomputers include IBM PC and PC-AT.

Mini Computers: Designed to support multiple users at once. It has a large storage capacity and works at high speed. Minicomputers are used in multi-user systems where different users can work simultaneously. This type of computer is commonly used in organizations to process large amounts of data. It is also used as a server within a local area network (LAN).

Mainframe: This type of computer is usually a 32-bit microprocessor. They work very fast, have huge storage capacity, and can handle the workload of multiple users.They are typically used in centralized databases. They are also used as control nodes in wide area networks (WANs). Examples include DEC, ICL, and the IBM 3000 series.

Supercomputers: These are the fastest and most expensive machines. They have faster processing speeds compared to other computers. It also has multiprocessing technology. There is a way to interconnect hundreds of microprocessors to make a supercomputer. Supercomputers are primarily used in weather forecasting, biomedical research, remote sensing, aircraft design, and other scientific and technological fields. Examples include his CRAY YMP, CRAY2, NEC SX-3, CRAY XMP, and PARAM in India.

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What is Digital and Analog Computer? | Brief History of Modern Computers

The First Programmable Computer – The Z1 is believed to be the first electronic binary programmable computer, originally built in his parents’ living room between 1936 and 1938 by German Konrad Zuse.

The first digital computer (short for Atanasoff-Berry computer), the ABC, was started in 1937 by Professor John Vincent Atanasoff and graduate student Cliff Berry, and worked until 1942 at Iowa State University (now Iowa State University). Development continued. On October 19, 1973, U.S. Federal Judge Earl R. Larsen affirmed his ruling by Eckert and Mauchly that his ENIAC patent was invalid, and he named Atanasoff as the inventor of the electronic digital computer. .

ENIAC was started by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly of the University of Pennsylvania, construction began in 1943 and was not completed until 1946. It occupied about 1,800 square feet, used about 18,000 tubes and weighed about 50 tons. Although the judge ruled that he ABC computer was the first digital computer, many still think he ENIAC was the first digital computer.

Because of the judge’s decision and no appeal, ABC is considered the first digital computer. However, since ABC was never fully functional, he is believed to be the first digital computer to work, ENIAC.

First Stored Program Computer – An early British computer known as EDSAC is considered the first stored program electronic computer. The computer made its first calculations on May 6, 1949 and was the first graphical his computer to run games.

First Personal Computer – Ed Roberts coined the term personal computer in 1975 and introduced the Altair 8800. However, the first personal computer is believed to be his Kenbach-1, which he first introduced in 1971 for $750. Computers used a series of switches to enter data. Turns on/off a series of lights and outputs data.

Microl is considered the first commercial non-combination computer. This computer used the Intel 8008 processor and in 1973 he sold for $1,750.

First Workstation – Although never sold, the first workstation is believed to have been the Xerox Alto, introduced in 1974. Computers were innovative for their time, consisting of a fully functional computer, display, and mouse. Computers behave much like many computers today, using windows, menus, and icons as the interface to the operating system.

First PC (IBM-compatible) computer – In 1953, IBM shipped the 701, the first electronic computer. Then IBM introduced his first personal computer in 1981 called “IBM PC”. The computer, codenamed and still sometimes called “Acorn”, had an 8088 processor, 16 KB of memory expandable to 256, and used MS-DOS.

First PC Clone – The first PC clone was developed by his Compaq. The “Compaq Portable” was released in March 1983 and was 100% compatible with IBM computers and software running on IBM computers.

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