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What Is A Computer Programming Language | Types Of Programming Language
Computer programming language – Programming is done to prepare software, that is, the necessary commands are written in an understandable language of the computer in a certain sequence to get the desired work done efficiently, that is, we need to know about the desired requirements to get the computer to work. In order to inform the computer, a special technique has to be used. This technology is called computer language.
Best Computer Programming Languages For Beginners
There are two types of computer languages
1- Low Level Language
2- High Level Language
Low Level Language
Low Level Language – The language of the computer which is used to create System Softwares, Utilities, Assemblers and Compilers is called Low Level Language. The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) which directs the computer’s input and output units from time to time to use, is a utility. Those programs that are used to check, give instructions and file service to the computer’s hardware are called utilities, such as PCTOOLS, NDD, QAPLUS, Virus Scanners çruifal.
Types Of Low Level Language
There are two types of low level language – machine language and assembly language.
Machine Language – This language is made up of only two digit combinations 1 and 0 which the computer can understand directly. Every instruction in machine language consists of two parts – first, the operation code and the second is the location code. Order codes and status codes are expressed in sequences from 0 to 1. Writing programs in this language was a very difficult task. If any mistake was left in the program written in this language, then it was very difficult to find that mistake.
Assembly Language – In this language ‘Mnemonic Code’ was used instead of machine key. A machine code was also prescribed for each of these mnemonic codes, but the work of converting from assembly code to machine code was done by a program assembler located in the computer itself.
High Level Language
Programs are written using English letters, numbers and pictures in a high level language. Because it does not require writing any instruction by converting it into machine code (binary code), it is very easy for the programmer to write a program in this language. Major languages of this type are BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL etc.
Types of High Level Language
There are four types of high level language:
- Scientific Languages - ALGOL, BASIC, PASCAL, FORTRAN etc. are the main scientific languages.
- Commercial Languages - PL/1, COBOL and DBASE are the major commercial languages.
- Major Special Purpose Language – APL360 and LOGO etc. are special purpose languages.
- Multi-Purpose Language – BASIC language is a good example of multi-purpose language. Pascal and PL/1 can be considered in this type of language.
Basics of Computer Programming – Languages You Can Use to Create Programs
Those who wish to learn computer programming and the languages that can be used to create programs must first be familiar with the basics. The languages employed in programming should be one of your primary considerations. Before building a program, it is important that you know the different types and levels of programming languages. Among these are:
Machine Level Language
1. Machine Level Language – We all know that computers work in bits and bytes and it reads and understands the binary digits 0 and 1. While you are free to program in any language you wish, it must be converted to the languages of the OS and 1S before doing so. Keep following it.
That means you have to write a program or convert your written program into machine language. And this is no easy task. It’s almost impossible to remember a long sequence of 0s and 1s for each instruction you execute.
Yes it is true that before the development of high level languages, the languages used in creating programming code are machine level languages. However, nowadays this level of language is not used in designing computer programs.
Assembly Level Language
2. Assembly Level Language –This level of programming language is only one level higher than low level or machine languages. This is why creating programs using such languages is not a piece of cake, however, the programming code produced is quite understandable.
So far, there are plenty of programs for embedded technology that are built in assembly language. The program which is responsible for converting assembly level program into machine level program is called assembler.
High Level Language
3. High Level Language – These computer languages are easy for humans to understand. It contains clear statements to make up each instruction. The languages that fall into this category have different purposes. The languages designed for web programming are; Some for desktop applications, while others can do both.
Keep one thing in mind though, it is not easy for a computer to understand a high level language. This is where the importance of the interpreter or compiler comes into play. Such programs transform programming code into a language that the machine can understand.
In addition to these three basic levels of languages, another generation of programming language is now being designed. It is dubbed as the fourth generation language, designed for people who have little or no programming experience.
The developers of such a language want these inexperienced programmers to learn to design their own code. This is why high level languages like Java have already come with these systems. It enables a person to write programming code without having to memorize each and every function.
Keep in mind that no matter which programming language you choose to learn, you need to have a fair understanding of the basics. If you are not familiar with the basics of a programming language, you will not be able to program in that specific language. It is advisable that you take computer courses so that you can learn much more than just the basics of computer programming.
Characteristics Of Programming Languages
Programming language translators are taken as the best examples of system software. The computer programming language is developed with the primary objectives of making it simple for a large number of people to use the computer without the need to know the details of the internal structures of the computers. Languages correspond with the types of operations to be performed by algorithms for different applications. Languages also have to be designed for a machine independent process. Some of the popular high level languages that are taken are the following:
1. FORTRAN FORTRAN – This stands for formula translation. It is the oldest high level language. The first version of this language was known as FORTRAN-II, and the next popular version was FORTRAN-04. FORTRAN-77 was the most powerful of its predecessors. More recently in this version FORTRAN has been referred to as FORTRAN-90, replacing FORTRAN-77.
2. COBOL – It stands for Common Business Oriented Language. Now a days it is widely used for programming language for business data processing and outsourcing process.
3. ORIGINAL – This is for all-purpose Beginner Symbolic Instruction Code. It was developed for the users who are beginning computer and their learning process and it can be learned quickly.
4. PASCAL – It was named after the French mathematician Pascal. It was designed and developed by Nichols. The main objective behind the development of this language is to allow beginners to learn good problem solving and programming methods.
5. ‘C’ LANGUAGE –
‘C’ is the major high level language for building programs. for this type of application and has been taken as the primary development language for personal computers and workstations. This package is widely used by independent software developers to build applications. ‘C’ has the highest level of portability across various hardware platforms.
The History of ‘C’ Language
‘C’ is one of the most popular programming languages; It was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in the United States. It is an improved version of the earlier two languages, which were also developed at Bell Laboratories.
Founder Of Every Programming Language
1. Algol International Group
2. BCPL Martin Richards
3. B. Ken Thompson
4. C Dennis Ritchie
5. K&RC Kernighan and Richie
6. ANSI C ANSI COMMITTEE
7. ANSI/ISO C ISO Committee
‘C’ is a mid level language and there are low and high level languages,
1. Low level language: Low level language is in terms of 0 and 1 (bits). The ‘C’ language has some of the following language features, which allow the programmer to perform operations on bits that are usually available as assembly or machine language.
2. High level language: High level languages are easily understood and designed to give better program efficiency. These languages are machinery independent. Examples are Fortran, Pascal, C, and C++…etc.
C is one of these two categories. It is a middle language. This means that it performs the function of low language as well as high level language.
Features and Applications of C Language
1. It is highly portable.
2. It is strong language whose rich set of building in functions and operators can be used to write any complex program.
3. ‘C’ has the ability to expand itself. You can continually add your own functions to existing library functions.
4. It is suitable for writing system software as well as application software.
5. This program can be run by different operating systems of different computers with little or no change.