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The World’s Best Known Early Computers – The History Of Computer
Early Computers History- From the beginning, it was a human dream to make such machines and devices. The way it works is exactly the same as humans. In the realization of this dream, humans invented the computer. Information is transmitted to a computer through computer input devices, keyboards, mice, microphones, etc., just as humans transmit information to the brain by seeing, hearing, and touching. Just as the human brain analyzes the information it receives, so does the CPU of a computer. It also analyzes the information received. So please tell us about some of the famous early computers –
Some of the famous early computers
Early Computers – Mark-I
This fully automated calculator was developed by Howard A of Harvard University. Aiken (Howard A. Aiken) built it with $ 5,000 from IBM. Its design was based on the technology developed for punched card machines. After about five years of tireless effort, this calculator was completed in 1944. The name of this machine was Automatic Acceptance Controlled Calculator. After that, it became known as Mark-I. Despite its large size and complex design, this machine has proven to be extremely reliable. It was 50 feet long and 8 feet wide.
About 3 million electrical connections, about 500 miles of wire, and about 76,000 parts were used to make this computer. Over 3000 electric switches were used to control its operation. I was able to perform all four basic arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and table reference. All arithmetic calculations can be done with the help of this computer.
It was also possible to perform logarithmic and trigonometric calculations. Named the calculator, the device also had the ability to make decisions on its own. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to call it the world’s first computer. With the help of this computer, the product of any two numbers (even 20 digits) could be obtained in just 6 seconds and the quotient in 12 seconds. The interesting part is attached to Mark-1. If this computer breaks down.
After many attempts, the expert could not find out the reason and location of the computer failure. Experts were surprised when the cause of this malfunction was discovered. The reason for the failure was a break in the electrical circuit. It took a long time to connect this circuit. This incident was posted to the company’s log table debugged with Mark-1 today. Because of this phenomenon, fixing computer errors is still called debugging today.
Early Computers – ABC
Dr. John Atanasov (Dr. John Atanasov) and his assistant Clifford Berry developed an electronic machine in 1942 and solved a specific mathematical formula named after both (Atanasoff Berry). computer). This computer is also commonly referred to as ABC. This computer used a vacuum tube. These tubes were used to make logical decisions inside this computer. I used a condenser to store this computer.
Early Computers – ENIAC
In 1943, the Moore School of Engineering, the Ballistic Research Lab and the US Army jointly started working in this direction. As a result of this effort, in 1946, American engineer Professor J. The world’s first electronic computer was designed under the leadership of Presper Eciert and John Mauchly. This computer designed for the US Army was named Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator ie ENIAC.
The working speed of this computer was much higher than Howard’s Mark-1. Calculations of 5000 addition or 350 multiplication and division could be done in just one second with Aniyak. This computer used to do calculations completely automatically and by storing those calculations in its memory temporarily, it was ready for the next calculation.
The US military used this computer to determine the measurement-distances of new military weapons of that time. This computer was very large in size, it required a room of about 20 x 40 square feet. Its weight was about 30 tons.
1800 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10000 capacitors and 6,000 switches were used in this computer. In this computer, the work of addition of two numbers could be done in 200 microseconds and multiplication in 2000 microseconds. Due to lack of permanent memory storage system in it, some computer scientists consider it less computer and more calculator.
Early Computers – EDVAC
The lack of permanent memory in Eniac was his biggest drawback. To overcome this shortcoming, Dr. John von Neumann introduced the Stored Program Concept. In the stored program concept, instructions were to be stored in a certain sequence in the computer’s memory in order to automatically direct the operation of the computer. The Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer was developed in the USA only on the accumulated program concept. Designed in.
Early Computers – EDSAC
At the time when EDSAC was being developed in the US, the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator was developed in the UK around the same time. This machine was developed by Professor Maurice Wilkes of Cambridge University and in May 1949, the first program was implemented on this machine.
Early Computers – UNIVAC-I
The full name of UNIVAC is Universal Automatic Computer. It was the world’s first digital computer. Although many Univac computers were built, but in 1951, the American Census Bureau, the first Univac was established, which was used continuously for the next ten years. In 1954, the General Electric Corporation made commercial use of the UNIVAC-I for the first time.