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Introduction to Computers | Computers Components And Technology | Computer Ka Parichay
Introduction to Computers – The advent of computers hasn’t changed so much in the modern world in the last 50 years. With the world’s population growth and wealth creation, transactions have become so numerous that people can no longer do it manually. Very important in modern business information is information about the business, its history, performance, forecasts and budgets, employees, customers / clients, creditors and suppliers, investments and more.
Many people need to manually record and process the data to make it useful information. That’s why today’s computers are so important.
A computer is an electronic machine that stores and processes data. The processed data is called information. The first computer was made in the United States in 1945. It weighs 30 tons and has a floor area of 138 square meters, which is the size of an average house.
Today, large mainframe computers occupy only a few square meters and can process much more data much faster. The most important development arose with the invention of the personal computer (PC) in 1980. Hardware is changing fastest in the computer industry, and new, faster components are invented almost every day.
The first large computer was able to execute 5000 instructions per second. The latest small PCs can process millions of instructions per second. Large computers like Cray can process over 1000 000 000 (1 billion) instructions per second.
Introduction to Computers | Computers Components And Technology
Introduction to Computers – Computer Hardware Basics
Computers run our society these days. And as they become increasingly and more useful in almost every aspect of our lives, learning about them is imperative. A basic understanding of their makeup and what each of their parts does will allow you to use the machines more effectively for your daily needs.
The main part of the computer is the system unit or tower. In this plastic and metal case are integral parts of a system. The main and most important part in the tower is the motherboard. This device is the symbolic backbone of the computer. All other devices connect to it in some way, usually by an opening called a port.
Devices attached to the motherboard include the hard drive where data is stored, and RAM, which is the memory that allows programs to run. You also have video cards that allow your monitor to display graphics, sound cards that process data to output sound from speakers, and network cards that give you access to other computers or networks, such as that internet.
Other disc drives are also located inside the tower, such as CD players, DVD players and Blu-ray players. Most computers today come with DVD or Blu-ray players that are backwards compatible, meaning they can play older CDs. Internal fans or liquid cooling systems are used to reduce the temperature of the running components, preventing them from malfunctioning due to excessive heat. Finally, the power supply accepts power from an outlet and converts it into a current that can be used by a computer.
A traditional desktop computer usually consists of several other core components. These include monitor, mouse and keyboard. Of course, nowadays, with tablet PCs and laptops, this doesn’t apply to all computers.
There have been many types of monitors made over the past 30 years. The first of these was the old CRT model, like the old TV. These had limited resolution and color output compared to the new screens. Today, most monitors are either LCD or LED screens with very high resolution and color outputs. Some of these monitors on the market have a resolution of 2550 pixels x 1440 pixels, which is quite a difference from current 1920 pixel x 1080 pixel high-definition televisions.
For input devices, a mouse and keyboard are still standard today. The mouse is used to control programs through a point-and-click interface. This works well with visually focused programs where you can click buttons and navigate the screen with ease. Mice can be either wired or wireless and usually have one or more buttons to choose from and track balls for easily scrolling up and down pages.
A keyboard consists of a number of keys, or buttons, that are used to interact with programs. They are best used for text-based programs, but are also used with hybrid programs such as video games or word processors, where you select buttons with the mouse and then type with the keyboard. There are many types of keyboards. Like mice, there are wired and wireless types. Ergonomically designed for comfort. Some are foldable and even soft and bendable.
They are the major internal and external components of today’s computers. A basic understanding of these complex machines, as well as how to use them properly, will help you stay ahead of the ever-changing, technological world.
PC Components And Technology
The following section gives a brief overview of the components and technologies used in modern PCs.
Hardware Components- One of the great strengths of the PC architecture is that it is extensible and allows you to connect a variety of components so you can perform tasks on your PC that designers never imagined. That’s all. However, most PCs include a more or less standard set of components, such as: (Remember when we talked about the minimal components to power a computer)
Motherboard- Motherboard is the heart of your PC. It acts as a “command central” for coordinating system activity. Its type primarily determines the functionality of the system.
Voltage Regulator Modules (VRMs)- VRMs provide a clean, tightly controlled voltage to the CPU. Faster CPUs consume more current. Good VRMs tend to be expensive, so few motherboard manufacturers fit the fastest CPUs. Use the lowest rated VRM for which the motherboard is designed. to support.
Memory Slots- The type and number of memory slots (and chipset limits) determine the type and amount of memory that can be installed on your PC. Memory is different from 168-pin SDRAM DIMMs, 168-pin or 184-pin Rambus RIMMs, 184-pin DDR-SDRAM DIMMs, DDR400, DDR2, and DDR3. Older motherboards accept 30-pin and / or 72-pin SIMMs.
Expansion Bus Slots- The type and number of expansion bus slots determine the types of expansion cards you can add to your system. Common slots available are ISA (old and obsolete), PCI, AGP, PCI-Express.
Integrated Features- Modern motherboards often have built-in features such as video, sound, and LAN. The advantages of embedded components are cost savings, improved integration, and improved reliability. The downside is that it can be difficult or impossible to upgrade an embedded component and you have to pay for the embedded component regardless of whether you use it or not.
Integrated motherboards are often ideally suitable for casual use, but most readers of this book avoid them on high-performance systems and build PCs from discrete components.
Processor- A processor or CPU is the engine that drives your PC. The CPU you use determines the speed at which your system runs and the operating system and other software that your system can run. Most PCs use Intel or AMD processors. Processors differ in speed, efficiency, and other aspects of performing different tasks.
Memory- PC uses random access memory (RAM) (also known as simple memory) to store currently running programs and data. RAM is available in different types, speeds, and physical packages. The amount and type of RAM your system uses depends on its chipset, the type and number of RAM slots available, and other factors.
The optimal amount of RAM depends on the operating system you are running, the number and type of programs you are running at the same time, and other factors. Adding RAM is often a cost-effective upgrade for older systems.
Floppy Disk Drives- Floppy disk drives (FDDs) were previously used for everything from booting a PC to storing data and running programs to create backups, but are now widely used in emergency boots. It is reused for rare purposes such as disk burning and reading. Updated device drivers and running diagnostic programs. , Or “copy” the document to another system. The FDD has been officially declared a “legacy” device, and many PCs manufactured after the mid-2000s do not have a device.
CD-ROM Drives- CD-ROM drives began to appear on mainstream PCs in the early 90’s. CD-ROM discs store 700 MB or more of data in a read-only format and are inexpensive in both capacity and production, so they are commonly used for software and data distribution. CD-ROM drives are also popular for listening to music and playing games because they can also play CD-DA (audio) discs and multimedia discs.
Hard Disk Drive – A hard disk drive (HDD) is also the primary storage device for any PC. Unlike RAM, which holds data only when the power is turned on, the data written to the HDD remains saved until it is deleted. HDD space was previously a scarce resource that users had to spend a lot of effort to save.
Most people think that the latest HDDs are basically free disk space because they are very large (100 + GB-1.5 terabytes (1500 + GB)) and very cheap. On the downside, modern HDDs can be difficult to install and configure. Especially if it’s old. system.
Video Adapter-A video adapter, also known as a graphics adapter (3D acceleration), takes video data from your computer and converts it into a format that your monitor can view. In addition to image quality, the video adapter you use determines the sharpness, number of colors, and consistency of the image displayed on your monitor.
While modern video adapters display text and simple graphics properly, video adapters differ greatly in their suitability for use in graphics-intensive software, including games.
Monitor-The monitor you use will ultimately determine the quality of the video you watch. Monitors are available in a variety of sizes, capacities, features and prices, and choosing the right monitor is not an easy decision.
Sound Adapters and Speakers-All PCs can use the built-in speakers to generate basic warning sounds and audible signals, but listen to audio CDs, play games, and watch DVDs in full surround sound. Or you can access the internet for free. A sound card (or built-in motherboard sound adapter) and speakers or headphones are required to use voice recognition and other PC audio features.
Keyboard and Mouse-PCs accept user input using a variety of devices. The keyboard inputs text. A mouse, trackball, and other pointing device for working in a Windows graphical environment. A game controller for playing modern graphical computer games and simulations.
Communication Ports-Communication ports allow you to connect your PC to external peripherals such as printers, modems, and similar devices.
Case and Power Supply-The case (or chassis) is the outer shell that houses your PC and all internal peripherals. The power supply provides regulated power to all system components and cools the air flow to prevent the components from overheating.
Best Computer Based Education System
Computers and communications technology continue to make an ever-increasing impact on all levels of education and training, from primary to secondary to distance learning. Computers in education are designed to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the education process. Mostly Online education has revolutionized the education industry.
Computer management instruction and curriculum integration are essential for educational purposes as the latest technology advances. Integrating technology into the classroom curriculum is important for organizing resources. Reading and linguistic arts, social sciences, science and mathematics are the main subjects covered by the curriculum.
Educational computing issues range from legal issues to ethical issues to the need to deal with cybercrime hackers. To this end, educational institutions need to ensure online security. Effective networking and telecommunications are essential requirements for classrooms and laboratories. It is part of the school curriculum as computer technology continues to have a profound impact on the modern education system.
Computer benefits in education include efficient storage and rendering of information, rapid information processing, and crucial paper savings. Home assignments and assignments submitted as soft copy save paper. Nowadays, students find it easier to browse the internet than to find information in reference books. Today, the educational process goes beyond learning from prescription books. In addition, it’s easier to store information on your computer than to keep handwritten notes. Therefore, we can say textbook vs computer education!
Computer technology has made the dreams of distance learning a good reality. Education is no longer limited to classrooms, but is widespread. The Internet plays an important role in education. You can teach students information on various themes on the Internet. Computers facilitate the effective presentation of information. Software like PowerPoint and animation software can be very helpful in providing information to teachers.
Audiovisual representations of information make the learning process interesting and interactive. Electronically erasable memory devices can be used many times. Therefore, the learning process is facilitated.
Computers are an integral part of every industry today. Life would be unimaginable without a computer! While it is clear that they are no longer limited to the software industry, computers are widely used in networking, information access, data storage and information processing. Therefore, IT professionals recommend the introduction of computers early in early childhood developmental education to lay a strong foundation for most major competitive careers. Computers play an important role in personal and professional life.