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Information About Computer System | Best Computer Systems Introduction
Information About Computer System – Attention, the computer can receive some information, follow specific instructions in a specified order, calculate and analyze the information as needed, and present accurate and true results. I understand. Computers use input devices to receive information, analyzer units to perform calculations and analyzes, and output devices to produce results.
Information About Computer System – Computer Parts
From a structural point of view, computers can be divided into three parts-
- Central processing unit
- Input device
- Output device
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The central processing unit is also called the central analyzer. As the name implies, it is that part of the computer that analyzes the information it receives. The central processing unit (CPU) can be divided into three parts-
1. Control unit
2. ALU (Airtmetic & Logical Unit-ALU)
The function of the control unit is to control the input and output devices of the computer. Its main function is to receive information from the input device, convert it into a computer-understandable signal, send it to ALI, use the memory properly and get the result after analysis from the ALU.
The main functions of the control units are:
Sending to an output device Brings information / data to the controller with the help of an input device that was first instructed to output the results to the output device.
The controller provides the information / data to the appropriate location in memory.
It gets information / data from memory to the controller and sends it to the ALU.
The result received from the ALU is sent to the output device to provide the proper location in memory.
Information About Computer System
Computer Data Storage
Information About Computer System – Information / data / data storage and storage on a computer is done by electrical and electronic components. Transistors, integrated circuits (I.C.), capacitors, resistors, etc. are used in electronic circuits. Transistors and I.C. These work on the basis of a switching process. That is, it remains on in certain situations and off in other situations. Both of these conditions determine the presence or absence of voltage. These situations are assigned two numbers, 0 (zero) and 1 (1). Based on these two numbers, the computer performs a variety of calculations and analyzes.
This system is called a binary system or a binary system. All information and instructions provided to the computer are first converted to binary numbers. These are then sent to the ALU. The ALU redisplays the analysis results from the ALU in binary, but the controller reconverts these results from the binary to the output device as before. In a binary system, each digit, or 0 to 1, is called a bit. Bits are short for binary numbers. If the binary number is 5 digits, it is called a 5-bit number. Similarly, 6-digit binary 6-bit number, 7-digit binary number
This number is called a 7-bit number as follows-
100100 6-bit binary number
110010010 99-bit binary number |
On computers, letters and special symbols are represented in ASCII. This is a way to write letters and special symbols in a binary system. Its full name is an American standard code for exchanging information.
With this method, binary groups are written with 8 digits. Of these eight digits, the first four are zones and the remaining four are numbers. When you give instructions to the computer through the input medium, the computer automatically understands these instructions by converting them into ASCII code. You usually have to press the “keys” of letters, numbers, and symbols on your keyboard to give instructions. The computer automatically translates it into its own language.
This part of the computer controls the internal operations of the computer. It controls input and output functions, as well as memory and ALU. Also instruct data exchange
By changing the control signals in the system, you can take appropriate action on the data. It is to get the program’s instructions from memory to execute the program. By converting the instruction into an electrical signal, it can be sent to the appropriate device to complete the data processing. Control unit, ALU function Notifies the user where the data to be processed is in memory, the action to be taken, and where to save the result in memory after processing.
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit-ALU)
Information About Computer System – Computers have been established as a good means of computing. This raises the question of what is put into the computer so that it can easily perform the largest calculations and get results. Therefore, the computer has a unit that can perform all calculations of all kinds, and this unit can answer this question, as it is called an ALU. (Arithmetic logic unit-A.L.U.). A computer unit that can perform all kinds of calculations is called an arithmetic logic unit.
There are two main principles in computer mathematics. One is that all types of arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) are performed by a kind of addition. Then you need to add the numbers 1 and 0 to do this. This will give you the numbers 1 and 0. Apart from this, there are also benefits and complements to be achieved. All work on the computer is done through logic gates. Various types of logic gates are combined to form electronic circuits for executing arithmetic programs. There are various types of gates such as AND gates, OR gates, and NOT gates.
The AND gate returns the output signal “1” if any of the input signals is “1”.
The NOT gate output is the opposite of that input.
The OR gate outputs an output signal “1” when any of the input signals is “0”.
You can use the output of one gate as an input to another and connect the gates in different ways to create a circuit that allows arithmetic calculations. You have to do four things in total-
Sum the 0s with 0 + 1 to get a score of 0.
Get 0 by summing 1 of 0 + 1.
Sum up with 1 + 0 to get a score of 0.
Get a total of 1 and 0 with 1 + 1.
Gates that can perform the above functions can perform arithmetic operations. The logic section of the ALU should be treated separately from the logic gate. This is a section that will help you run your program correctly.
Information About Computer System | Best Computer Systems Introduction
Memory is the storage of instructions, information, or results. Part of the human brain is also used for memory. If he has to do some calculation, the number to be counted is first stored in memory and then the answer is given only after the result of the calculation is stored in memory. Therefore, it is clear that memory is part of storing the messages, information, instructions, etc. given to the human brain. All of these tasks can be performed by the computers we do in our brains.
Information About Computer System – Computer CPU All actions taken on the CPU are first sent to memory. Technically, memory is your computer’s working storage. Memory is the most important part of a computer where data, information, and programs are placed in the process and readily available when needed. Memory as primary memory or main memory
Also called memory). There are many places in memory, and the number is fixed. This is called memory capacity or memory size and is 256 KB, 512 KB, 768 KB, 1.2 GB, 4 GB, and so on. Each location has an address. The main memory is a semiconductor chip.
Memory Units The units that measure memory capacity are BIT, BYTE, KB, MB, and GB. O-bit-This is the smallest unit of computer memory. It represents a binary number of 0s or 1s stored in memory. This is a binary microform.
BYTEBYTE-This is a standard unit of computer memory. All letters, numbers, or special symbols pressed from the keyboard in your computer’s memory are saved in ASCII code. Each ASCII code is 8 bits. Therefore, to store any character in memory, 8 bits make up 1 byte.
OKB-KB is an abbreviation for kilobytes. 1KB is equivalent to 1024 bytes.
MB-MB means megabytes: 1MB is equivalent to 1024KB.
OGB-GB is an abbreviation for gigabyte. 1GB is equivalent to 1024MB.
There are two types of memory: temporary memory and persistent memory.
Temporary Memory – When you turn on your computer and provide information, they are stored in your computer’s memory. Unless the command erases this information or the computer is turned off, it will be stored in the computer’s memory.
This information is erased from memory as soon as the computer is turned off. All this information is stored in your computer’s RAM. No command is needed to store the information in your computer’s RAM. Information sent to the computer through the input device.
If given, it will be saved in RAM immediately. The information stored in this type of memory is called temporary memory because it cannot be used when the computer is turned off and then on again. RAM is also known as the computer’s basic memory.
Permanent Memory – When you turn on your computer, some messages will appear on your monitor screen. First, RAM is checked on your computer. If there is a problem, display a message on the screen or receive an audio signal. afterwards
In turn, check the required I / O devices connected to your computer, such as keyboards and floppy drives. Floppy drive DOS may occur.
(Operating System) Key Press any key on your keyboard on the floppy. All of these instructions and messages that your computer is displaying are stored in your computer’s persistent memory. In addition, some programs are also resident in ROM, and the above “message” regarding the acquisition of instructions is displayed accordingly.
Is displayed on the screen. Regardless of how many times you turn your computer on and off, this program is in your computer’s permanent memory (ROM).