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Generations of Computers | Generations Of Computers And Their Best Features
Generations of Computers – With the development of the first electronic computer in 1946, the process of continuous new research and development of computers is ongoing. In the computer context, generation represents a new step in computer technology. Basically, generational changes are represented by changes in the hardware technology used in computers. Computer development so far has been divided into five generations-
Generations of Computers in chart form
- First Generation – 1946-1956
- Second Generation – 1956-1964
- Third Generation – 1964-1970
- Fourth Generation – From 1970 to the Present
- Fifth Generation – Computers of the Futures
Generations of Computers and their characteristics
First Generation Computer
First Generation Computer – Computers developed between 1946 and 1956 are recognized as first-generation computers. Diode valve tubes were used in this generation of computers. This vacuum tube, called a diode valve, was invented by Sir Ambrose Fleming in 1904. They were also named thermionic valves. Because it had two electrodes-cathode and anode; that’s why it’s called a diode, because electrons have moved from the cathode to the anode. That’s why it was called Valve.
Due to the valve, it was only used as an electronic switch. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) was the first electronic computer and the first generation computer. We have already provided more information on this. BINAC was created by the company that created ENIAC in 1949. The creators of ENIAC and BINAC, Eckert and Machli, have created the Universal Automatic Calculator (UNIVAC) to meet their business needs. The UNIVAC was the first electronic computer used by the general public.
In 1949, the computer EdSAC (EDSAC) was created at the University of Cambridge, England. BINAC and UNIVAC used to store data about mercury, but EDSAC stored memory on a cathode ray tube. IBM is a pioneer in the manufacture of electromechanical computers. I made a computer model-101 in 1952. Use magnetic tape to store memory on this computer
Used with magnetic drums for cathode and bulk memory. I used a punch card to enter data on this computer. Other major first-generation computers include the IBM-650, IBM0702, and IBM-704.
Second Generation Computer
Second Generation Computer – Computers developed between 1956 and 1964 are recognized as second-generation computers. The invention of the transistor in 1948 revolutionized the field of electronic technology. Second Generation computers used transistors instead of vacuum tubes. What about computers after manufacturing transistors containing silicon? The use of diode valves in all electronic devices has been significantly reduced. Developed in 1952, field-effect transistors took only one microsecond to reach from one position to another.
In 1953, it took M. Ross to move a transistor from one position to another in about 1 nanosecond (1 / 18th of a second). This transistor was made of germanium. Second-generation computers were smaller in size and dissipated less heat than first-generation computers.
The speed and capacity of these computers were also higher than their predecessors. In 1959, he created a computer entirely based on a transistor named IBM MODEL-7090. Second generation main computers were the Sperry Univac-3, Honeywell 400, 800, CDC 1604, CDC 3600, Leo’s Mark-3 and more. The modular design was used in second generation computers.
Assembly language was used to program the computer. Some special symbols were also used for this. The use of magnetic cores for storage in second-generation computers was also an important event this time around. The magnetic core was a small ring made of ferrite. They were 0.02 inches in diameter and were magnetized both clockwise and counter clockwise.
These two directions represent 0 and 1. The memory of second generation computers was about 100 kilobytes. During this time, several advanced programming languages such as Fortran and Cobol were also developed. In these high-level languages, programming could only be done in English words.
Third Generation Computer
Third Generation Computer – Computers from 1964 to 1970 were placed in the 3rd generation. Computers of this generation used integrated circuits instead of transistors. I.C. transistors, resistors and capacitors were included in all three. In 1938, Texas Instrument Company’s JS Kilvi built an integrated circuit on a small silicon chip. On this chip, 26 parts of the device’s circuits were removed with a very small size (nail size) chip, connected to a wire, and attached to a metal printed circuit (DCBS). After the success of this experiment, thousands of parts were made with small chips.
In 1953, Harwich Johnson patented this technology under the name MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semi-conductor Field Effect Transistor). In 1966, it became possible to create thousands of transistors on a single chip. As a result, the size of the computer is much smaller than in previous generations.
This means that you used to need a room for your computer, but now you can put your computer in the same space as the cupboard. Video display units have also begun to be used in this generation of computers. The main computers of this generation are IBM’s System-360m DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) Programmable Data Processor-1 (PDP-1), PDP-5, PDP-5, PDP-8, ICL 1900, and UNIVAC 1108 and 9000.
Fourth Generation Computer
Fourth Generation Computer – Computers from the 1970s to the present have been stored in 4th generation computers. Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chips in 1975 made it possible to mount the entire control processing device on a single chip. These chips were called microprocessors, and the computers on which they were used were called microcomputers. The first microcomputer, Altair, was built on the Intel-8080 with 1 kW of memory.
Around 1976, other companies also manufactured this type of computer, some of which installed Zilog’s 7-80 chips. Cambridge scientist Clive Sinclair created a small, inexpensive calculator in 1970. Based on this, the Japanese created the first pocket calculator to reach every home today. SynClean has created a small computer called the Zx-80 that can be used for colour TVs.
The computer results are displayed on the screen. You can also play different types of games on this computer. In 1976, two American students, Steve Beznik and Steve John, created a computer that could be locked into a matchbox at a very low cost. This discovery revolutionized the computer world. These 8-bit-based microcomputers were named Apple and later became the Apple-1 and Apple-2 series.
Renamed Apple-2 Personal Computer. Other companies have also manufactured microprocessor chips based on their own technology. Like Intel 8080, 8085, 8086, 80286, 80486, Pentium, Motorola 6800, 68000, Geelog 7-80, Z-8001 and so on. The main computers in this series are Apple-1, Apple-2 Commodore PET, BBC Acorn and Spectrum. IBM India PCs are taking over the computer market. These computers certainly had less capacity than Apple computers, but they were abundantly used due to their relatively low price.
Fifth Generation Computer
Fifth Generation Computer – Scientists are currently working on fifth generation computers. Efforts are being made to incorporate human-like qualities into this generation of computers. Japanese scientists have named these computer development plans the Knowledge Information Processing System (KIPS).
Computers of this generation are still in development. There are plans to use artificial intelligence on these computers. This makes it possible to perform voice recognition and image control tasks very efficiently and at high speed. But future generations of computers are based on the flow of electrons, not the electrons in the elementary particles of matter. The elementary particles of light are based on photons. The laser beam is also composed of photons.
5 Generations of computers are faster, more capable, and more powerful than today’s computers. Generations of Computers – These computers are called high-optical optical computers or photonic computers.